NOTES

  Food Chain


Every living thing needs energy in order to live. Everytime animals do something (run, jump) they use energy to do so.

Animals get energy from the food they eat, and all living things get energy from food. Plants use sunlight, water and nutrients to get energy (in a process called photosynthesis). Energy is necessary for living beings to grow.
A food chain shows how each living thing gets food, and how nutrients and energy are passed from creature to creature. Food chains begin with plant-life, and end with animal-life. Some animals eat plants, some animals eat other animals.

As a conclusion, all living things need food to give them the energy to grow and move. A food chain shows how each living thing gets its food. It shows who is eating who.

 

Food web
A food web is a diagram showing the various different plants and animals in an ecosystem in relation to each other. It encompasses many consumers of each different level, acknowledging that one predator may eat several different kinds of prey, and that one kind of prey may be eaten by several kinds of predators. There are many food chains within a food web, and one creature is not necessarily at the top of the hierarchy.
The difference between a food chain and a food web is that a chain is a single strand of different levels of energy transfers, where as a food web will show the many food chains in a particular ecosystem such as a forest.


Difference Between Food Chain and Food Web

 A food chain only follows just one path as animals find food.

  

                eg: A hawk eats a snake, which has eaten a frog, which has eaten a grasshopper.

A food web shows the many different paths plants and animals are connected.




eg: A hawk might also eat a mouse, a rabbit, a snake or some other animal. The snake may eat a rabbit, a mouse, or some other animal. And so on for all the other animals in the food chain.

 

Trophic dynamics

 Trophic dynamics is a system which describes be position of a living being in a food chain. The system uses trophic levels to explain what an organism eats is eaten by.


 


Since consumers eat a variety of foods,food chains interact. A set interacting food chains is represented by a food web which there is an exampleh of above.

A Trophic Pyramid is a graphic reprensentation of one particular characteristic of each trophic



There are different types of CONSUMERS.
It is based on what they EAT


HERBIVORES eat only plants or plant products. That makes them PRIMARY CONSUMERS.

CARNIVORES only eat meat! They eat other animals. That makes them SECONDARY OR TERTIARY CONSUMERS.


OMNIVORES eat both plants and meat. So when a squirrel eats acorns or fruits, it is a PRIMARY CONSUMER; but, when it eats insects or baby birds, it is a SECONDARY CONSUMER.



DECOMPOSERS are the cleanup crew of life. They're just carnivores and herbivores that like their food already dead. Like maggots, bacteria, fungus, earthworms and other scavengers.
MEANING OF WORDS


Herbivore - an animal that eats plants. 





Carnivore - an animal that eats other animals.




Omnivore - an animal that eats both plants and animals for example ducks and humans. 


Producer - usually a green plant that produces its own food by photosynthesis.



Primary Consumer - Animals that consume only plant matter. They are herbivores - eg rabbits, caterpillars, cows, sheep, and deer.





Secondary Consumer - Animals that eat primary consumers (herbivores). 



Tertiary Consumer - Animals that eat secondary consumers (carnivores that feed on other carnivores).


Predators - kill for food. They are either secondary or tertiary consumers for example polar bears, golden eagles



Prey - are the organisms that predators feed on. Examples of predator and prey species are: fox and rabbit; blue tit and caterpillar; wolf and lamb.



Scavenger - a consumer that eats dead animals (e.g. crab, crow, vulture, buzzard and hyena. ) 


Detritivore - a consumer that obtains its nutrients from detritus.



Decomposer - an organism such as bacteria and fungi that breaks down dead organisms and their wastes.  (They do not 'eat' the food like scavengers, as they have no mouth-parts. Instead they break down solid matter into liquids which they can absorb.) Examples: bacteria and some fungi.


Word Power for Food Chain 

and Food Web

affect = mempengaruhi
balanced ecosystem = ekosistem seimbang
carnivore = karnivor
consumer = pengguna
egret = bangau
food chain = rantai makanan
food web = siratan makanan
herbivore = herbivor
link = hubung
network = jaringan
omnivore = omnivor
organism = organisma
population = populasi
predator = pemangsa
producer = pengeluar
relationship = hubungan



TYPES OF MICROORGANISMS








Bacteria

All bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes, meaning they do not have 
a defined cellular nucleus. Their genetic information is in their nucleoid,
 - single, circular tightly- packed DNA molecule. According to their shape,
 all bacteria are divided into three groups:
  • spirilla (with a spiral body shape);
  • cocci (with a spherical body shape);
  • bacillus ( with a rod (stick) shaped body).












Some types of bacteria live on their own and others form colonies. 
Some bacteria are quite mobile and others 'stay put' for their whole life. 
Bacteria move using their cytoplasmic tail - flagella, or by secreting 
slimy substances that allow them to slide along surfaces.

The cell walls of most bacteria contain a polysaccharide called peptidoglycan. 
Differences in their cell wall structure is a major feature used in
classifying these organisms. The staining abilities of bacteria
are also based on their cell wall structure. According to the way they stain,
bacteria can be classified as either Gram - positive or Gram - negative.

Based on their response to gaseous oxygen, all bacteria can be 
divided into the following groups:

Aerobic - living in the presence of oxygen;
Anaerobic - living without oxygen;
Facultative anaerobes - can live in both environments.

According to the way they obtain energy, bacteria are classified 
as heterotrophs or autotrophs. Autotrophs make their own food by using 
the energy of sunlight or chemical reactions, in which case they are
 called chemoautotrophs. Heterotrophs obtain their energy by 
consuming other organisms. Bacteria that use decaying life forms as 
a source of energy are called saprophytes. 

Protozoa

Protozoa is a subkingdom of unicellular, mostly aerobic, eukaryotic organisms.
 Sometimes they are also called protists. They are neither plants nor animals. 
They make up the largest group of organisms in the world in terms of numbers
 and biomass. Some protozoans, like Euglena, have chloroplasts like plants 
and make their own food, which makes them autotrophs. Others, 
like amoeba, are heterotrophs. Protozoans can be free-living or parasitic, 
unicellular or colonial. Some parasitic protozoans can cause diseases in humans.



 Protozoans move around using their flagella or pseudopodia - cytoplasmic
 temporary 'feet'.Because heterotrophic protozans consume bacteria, 
they play a very important role in controlling biomass. Biomass is
 the total weight of living organimsms in a given area. 

Fungi

Fungi are saprophytic (feed on decaying organic matter) and 
parasitic organisms.Fungi include moulds, rusts, mildews, smuts, 
mushrooms and yeast. By breaking down dead organic material, 
they continue the cycle of nutrients through ecosystems. Some plants
have a symbiotic relationship with fungi. Symbiosis is a mutually beneficial
co-existence of dissimilar organisms. For example, there are mushrooms 
that live near tree roots and supply them with essential nutrients.



All fungi are made of eukaryotic cells. Fungican be single-celled or 
with cells arranged in filaments called hyphae. Yeasts are unicellular fungi. 
Masses of hyphae are called mycelia. Mycelia can be well structured,
as in a mushroom, or tangled and unstructured, as in moulds. 
Some fungi can exist in the form of yeast and hyphae. These types of 
fungi are called dimorphic.

All fungi are heterotrophic, meaning that they obtain their energy and 
carbon compounds from organic nutrients. None of the fungi are photosynthetic. 
Some fungi are parasites and can cause diseases in humans,
animals and plants. Some fungi are used in the food industry and 
pharmaceutics (antibiotic production). 

Viruses

Although viruses are not considered living organisms, they are 
sometimes classified as microorganisms. Viruses are much smaller than 
common microbes. They are made of a DNA molecule covered with 
a protein  shell called a capsid. Retroviruses are made of an 
RNA molecule covered with a capsid. Capsids can take many shapes. 
Viruses cannot reproduce outside the host cell, but they cannot be 
called parasites either. Scientists still argue today about whether 
viruses are true living forms because they are not cells and they 
cannot metabolise on their own.



Viruses can infest prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, often 
causing diseases in organisms. A virus that infects bacteria is known 
as a bacteriophage. 

Word Power for Microorganisms

chickenpox = cacar
conjuctivitis = sakit mata
contagious = berjangkit
cough = batuk
effect = kesan
flu = selsema
harm = kesan buruk
harmful = berbahaya
magnifying glass = kanta pembesar
measles = campak
microscope = mikroskop
mould = kulat
mumps = beguk
quarantine = diasingkan
scabies = kudis buta
sneezing = bersin
sprinkle = merenjis
stomach upset = sakit perut
tooth decay = gigi reput
useful = berguna
uses = kegunaan 
yeast = ragi

Survival of Species







Word Power for Survival of Species

adapt = menyesuaikan
attack = menyerang
dispersal = pencaran
disperse = memencarkan
edible = boleh dimakan
ensure = memastikan
extinction = kepupusan
feed = memberi makanan
fine hairs = bulu halus
fleshy = berisi
herd = kumpulan yang besar
hide = menyembunyikan
hook = cangkuk
husk = sabut
parent = induk
pouch = kantung
protect = melindungi
shortage = kekurangan
species = spesies
spongy = berspan
survival = kemandirian
take care of = menjaga
waxy = berlilin
young = anak


ENERGY

Types of Energy

There are many different forms of energy. Every living thing, every non-living thing, 
every element of the Periodic Table of Elements, every atom in the previously mentioned, 
gives off a different energy. Here are a few definitions of the most common energies 

 you will encounter when working with what I teach.

Chi- The Life Energy running through all living things, including the smallest fungi and 

the largest sentient creature.

Psi- The Mental Energy running through all sentient things, including the special-ed and the 

otherwise mentally impaired.

Positive Energy- Energy that makes people feel good, lightens an area, and fights Negativity.

Negative Energy- Energy that makes people feel bad, darkens an area, and fights Positivity.

Auric Energy- The Energy that Auras are made from. 
Universal Life Energy- A combination of all the energies that come from living beings,

it is similar to The Force. 
The Tao- A combination of all energies from all things, living and non, it is a sentient
and eternal energy similar to that of Spirits, Angels, and Demons(may not be best 

description, research Taoism for more information). 
The Force- The Energy that runs through, on, under, above, over, around, and inside of all things.
The types of energies within this Universe are countless.

 Uses of Energy
















Renewable and Non-renewable Energy 


Word Power for Energy

appliance = peralatan
charcoal = arang kayu
coal = arang batu
energy = tenaga
fuel = bahan api
form = bentuk
non-renewable = tidak boleh diperbaharui
principle = prinsip
renewable = boleh diperbaharui
replenish = ganti
source = sumber
stretch = regang
transform = mengubah
wisely = secara bijaksana
use up =  habis digunakan



Sources of Electricity

We can find many sources of electricity in nature.Water,sunlight,wind,tides,
fuels etc are some of the source of nature from which we can generate electricity.
But of all water an sun light are commonly used for generating electricity.
The electricity generated through water is called hydroelectricity,which is the most 
common way of generating electricity worldwide.People have invented electricity
generating machine like generator,from where we can generate electricity.
Batteries and cells are also some source of electricity.

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 Series Circuits

1. A series circuit is a series of output areas (i.e. light bulbs) along a single, 
unbranching and unbreaking path.

2. A broken circuit is not wasting energy; the electrons in the circuit are just stationary.

3. A circuit is broken by a snapped wire or some other obstruction blocking 
the path of electron flow. Examples of these include but are not limited to
an “off” switch, a snapped wire, or an inserted conductor.

4. If 2 wires come off of both positive and negative outlets on a battery, and 2 light bulbs
 are connecting the 4 empty ends of the wires, the 2 bulbs will glow just as bright as
 if there was only 1 circuit attached to the battery. This is because the same amount 
 of energy is flowing through each circuit, yet the battery that is being used by 
 both circuits is being drained twice as fast. This is not a series circuit 
 because the circuit forks


Parallel Circuits

1. Parallel Circuit: electric devices connected in parallel are connected 

the same two points of an electric circuit.

2. In a Parallel circuit if one wire is disconnected the system with still work

3. A Parallel circuit will drain a battery a faster

4. In a Parallel circuit all the lights connected to the system will have 

the same amount of energy in each light


Word Power for Electricity 

accumulator = akumulator
brightness = kecerahan
circuit diagram = rajah litar
complete = lengkap
component = komponen
hydroelectric power = kuasa hidroelektrik
parallel circuit = litar selari
safety precaution = langkah berjaga-jaga
series circuit = litar bersiri




2 comments:

  1. Nota-nota ini jelas dan mudah difahami. Terima kasih atas perkongsian maklumat yang berguna ini.

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